Gurumurthy Ramachandran PhD » Faculty – Division of Environmental Health Sciences

Faculty | Adjunct Faculty

Gurumurthy Ramachandran PhD

Professor

School of Public HealthDivision of Environmental Health Sciences

Address Division of Environmental Health Sciences 420 Delaware Street SE MMC 807 Minneapolis MN 55455 Work Phone: 612-626-5428
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Biography:

Dr. Gurumurthy Ramachandran has conducted research in various areas relating to human exposure assessment in occupational and non-occupational settings. His research has included the development of robust occupational exposure assessment strategies for a variety of airborne contaminants. He has pioneered the use of novel Bayesian statistical methods that synthesize exposure models, monitoring data, and probabilistic expert judgment. He has been at the forefront of research in occupational hygiene decision-making, and developing mathematical methods for exposure modeling and analyzing occupational measurements. Additional areas of expertise include developing exposure assessment methods for nanoparticles and the use of expert judgment in risk assessment for nanomaterials, and nanotechnology policy in the areas of occupational health and nanomedicine. He has served as a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors to the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and advisory committees for the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). He is also serving on the editorial boards of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, and Journal of Occupational Safety and Health. He has a Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, a Master’s degree in Environmental Engineering, and a Ph. D. in Environmental Sciences and Engineering from the University of North Carolina.

Ph.D., Environmental Sciences and Enginering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill M.S., Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University B.T., Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay.

Professional Experience:

Professor, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Minnesota, 2005-present Director, Industrial Hygiene Program, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Minnesota, 2004 present. Associate Professor. Division of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Minnesota, 2000- 2005. Assistant Professor. Division of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Minnesota, 1994- 1999. PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH), American Board of Industrial Hygiene, 1997.

Honors:

  • Faculty Excellence Award, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, 2004.
  • Top Ten Achievement Award. American Industrial Hygiene Association. Professional Development Course on “Mathematical Models for Assessing Exposure to Indoor Air Contaminants” selected as one of the top ten PDCs at the AIHA Conference for two consecutive years, 2002 and 2003.
  • Elected member, Delta Omega national honorary public health society, 1999
  • Nominated for the Kenneth T. Whitby Award of the American Association for Aerosol Research, 1999, for “significant and outstanding contributions to aerosol science and technology”.
  • Emil T. Chanlett Fellowship, School of Public Health, UNC, 1992.
  • Kenan Foundation Fellowship, University of North Carolina 1988-1991. Awarded for “outstanding scholarship and academic achievement” and paid for tuition and fees and living expenses for the first three years of doctoral degree.
  • Edna Sussman Fellowship, Virginia Tech, 1987.
  • Elected member, Phi Kappa Phi Honor Society, Virginia Tech, 1988
  • Elected member, Sigma Xi, University of North Carolina, 1991

Research Interests:

Areas of interest include occupational and ambient exposure assessment, Bayesian methods in exposure assessment and occupational hygiene decision making, exposure modeling, nanoparticle risk assessment, nanotechnology policy, inhalation dosimetry for mixed exposures, aerosol measurements, theoretical and experimental studies on design of aerosol samplers, and inversion methodology.

Selected Publications:

  • Ramachandran. G., Toward Better Exposure Assessment Strategies – The New NIOSH Initiative. Accepted for publication in Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 2008.
  • Park, J.Y., Ramachandran. G., Raynor, P.C., Maynard, A.D., Eberly, L.E. Comparison of two estimation methods for surface area concentration using number and mass concentration of combustion-related ultrafine particles. Submitted to Atmospheric Environment, 2008.
  • Vadali, M., Ramachandran, G., Mulhausen, J.R. Exposure Modeling in occupational hygiene decision making. Submitted to Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2008.
  • Raynor, P.C., Kim, B.G., Ramachandran, G., Strommen, M.R., Horns, J.H., and Streifel, A.J.”Collection of Biological and Non-Biological Particles by New and Used Filters Made From Glass and Electrostatically-Charged Synthetic Fibers”, Indoor Air, 18(1):51-62 (2008).
  • Adgate, J.L., Cho, S.J., Ryan, A.D., Grengs, J., and Ramachandran, G. Allergen Levels in Inner City Homes: Baseline Concentrations and Evaluation of Intervention Effectiveness. Accepted for publication in Journal Of Exposure Science And Environmental Epidemiology, 2007.
  • Cho, S.J., Ramachandran, G., Grengs, J., Ryan, A.D., Eberly, L.E. and. Adgate, J.L. Longitudinal Evaluation of Allergen and fungal concentrations in Inner-City Households, Accepted for publication in Journal Of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2007.
  • Kandlikar, M., Ramachandran, G., Maynard, A.D., Murdock, B., Toscano, W.A., Health risk assessment for nanoparticles: A case for using expert judgment. Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 9:137-156, 2007. DOI 10.1007/s11051-006-9154-x.
  • Adate, J.L., Mongin, S.J., Pratt, G.C., Zhang, J., Field, M.P., Ramachandran, G., Sexton, K. Relationships between personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to trace elements in PM2.5. Sci Tot. Environ [Online August 10, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.07.007]
  • exton, K., Mongin, S.J., Adate, J.L., Pratt, G.C., Ramachandran, G., Stock, T.H., Morandi, M.T. Estimating Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in Selected Microenvironments Using Time-Activity and Personal Exposure Data. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 70: 465-476, 2007
  • Adgate, J.L., Ramachandran, G., Cho, S-J., Ryan, A.D., Grengs, J. Allergen levels in inner city homes: Baseline concentrations and evaluation of intervention effectiveness. Submitted to Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 2007.
  • Zhang, Y., Banerjee, S., Ramachandran, G., Yang, R. Bayesian modelling of airpattern for two-zone fields. Submitted to Biometrics, 2006.
  • Hewett, P., Logan, P., Mulhausen, J., Ramachandran, G., Banerjee, S. Rating exposure control using Bayesian decision analysis. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 3: 568-581, 2006.
  • Krishnamoorthy, K., Mathew, T., Ramachandran, G. “Generalized p-values and confidence intervals: A novel approach for analyzing lognormally distributed exposure data”. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 3(11): 642-650 2006.
  • Krishnamoorthy, K., Mathew, T., Ramachandran, G. Upper Limits for Exceedance Probabilities Under the One-Way Random Effects Model. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 51(4);397-406, 2007.
  • Greaves, I.A., Sexton, K., Blumenthal, M.N., Church, T.R., Adgate, J.L., Ramachandran, G., Fredrickson, A.L., Ryan, A.D., Geisser, M.S. Asthma, atopy, and lung function among racially diverse, poor inner-urban Minneapolis schoolchildren. Environmental Research, 103:257-266, 2007.
  • Monkkonen P., Pai P., Maynard A., Lehtinen KE., Hameri K., Rechkemmer P., Ramachandran G., Prasad B., Kulmala M. Fine particle number and mass concentration measurements in urban Indian households. Science of the Total Environment. 347(1-3):131-47, 2005.
  • Rechkemmer, P., Ramachandran, G., Pai, P., Maynard, A. “Women’s personal and indoor exposures to PM2.5 in Mysore, India: Impact of domestic fuel usage”, Atmospheric Environment, 39:5500-5508, 2005.
  • Ramachandran, G., Adgate, J.L., Banerjee, S., Church, T.R., Jones, D., Sexton, K. “Indoor Air Quality in Two Urban Elementary Schools-Measurements of Airborne Fungi, Carpet Allergens, CO2, Temperature, and Relative Humidity ” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 2: 553-566, 2005.
  • Ramachandran, G., Watts, W.F., Kittelson, D. “Mass, surface area, and number metric in diesel occupational exposure assessment”. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 2005, 7(7), 728 – 735.
  • Adgate, J.L., Church, T.R., Ryan, A.D., Ramachandran, G., Fredrickson, A.L., Stock, T.H., Morandi, M.T., and Sexton, K. “Outdoor, Indoor, and Personal Exposure to VOCs in Children.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2004, 112:1386-1392.
  • Pratt, G.C., Wu, C.Y., Bock, D., Adgate, J.L., Ramachandran, G., Stock, T.H., Morandi, M., Sexton, K. “Comparing air dispersion model predictions with measured concentrations of VOCs in urban communities.” Environmental Science and Technology, 38:1949-1959, 2004.
  • Sexton, K., Adgate, J.L., Mongin, S.J., Pratt, G.C., Ramachandran, G.,, Stock, T.H., Morandi, M.T. “Evaluating differences between measured personal exposures to volatile organic compounds and concentrations in outdoor and indoor air”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38(9):2593-602, 2004.
  • Sexton, K., Adgate, J.L., Ramachandran, G., Pratt, G.C., Mongin, S.J., Stock, T.H., Morandi, M.T., “Comparison of personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to hazardous air pollutants in three urban communities”, Environmental Science and Technology, 38:423-430, 2003.
  • Ramachandran, G., Banerjee, S., and Vincent, J.H., “Expert judgment and occupational hygiene: Application to aerosol speciation in the nickel primary production industry”, Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 47:461-475, 2003.
  • Sexton, K., Adgate, J.L., Church, T.R., Hecht, S.S., Ramachandran, G., Greaves, I.A., Fredrickson, A.L., Ryan, A.D., Carmella, S.G., and Geisser, M.S. “Children’s Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Using Diverse Exposure Metrics to Document Ethnic/Racial Differences” Environmental Health Perspectives: 12(3):392-7, 2004
  • Ramachandran, G., Adgate, J.L., Pratt, G.C., and Sexton, K. “Characterizing indoor and outdoor 15-minute average PM2.5 concentrations in urban neighborhoods”, Aerosol Science and Technology, 37:33-45, 2003.
  • Ramachandran, G., and Watts, W.F. “Statistical comparison of diesel particulate matter measurement methods”, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 64:329-337, 2003.
  • Adgate, J.L., Ramachandran, G., Pratt, G. C., Waller, L. A., and Sexton, K. “Longitudinal variability in outdoor, indoor, and personal PM2.5 exposure in healthy non-smoking adults”, Atmospheric Environment, 37:993-1002, 2003.
  • Sexton, K., Adgate, J.L., Church, T.R., Greaves, I.A., Ramachandran, G., Fredrickson, A.L., Geisser, M.S., and Ryan, A.D. “Recruitment, retention, and compliance results from a probability study of children’s environmental health in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods”, Environmental Health Perspectives, 111:731-736, 2003.
  • Adgate, J.L., Ramachandran, G., Pratt, G.C., Waller, L.A., and Sexton, K. “Spatial and temporal variability in outdoor, indoor, and personal PM2.5 exposure”, Atmospheric Environment, 36: 3255-3265, 2002.
  • Sreenath, A., Ramachandran, G., and Vincent, J.H. “Aspiration characteristics of idealized blunt aerosol samplers at large angles to the wind”, Journal of Aerosol Science, 33:81-881, 2002.
  • Kittelson, D., Watts, W.F., Ramachandran, G., Paulsen, D., and Kreager, C. “Measurement of diesel aerosol exposure: A feasibility study”, Special Report: Research Directions to Improve Estimates of Human Exposure and Risk from Diesel Exhaust, Health Effects Institute, 2002.
  • Vincent, J.H., Ramachandran, G., Kerr, S.M. “Particle size and chemical species ‘fingerprinting’ of aerosols in primary nickel production industry workplaces”, Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 3:565-574, 2001.
  • Ramachandran, G., “Retrospective exposure assessment using Bayesian methods”, Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 45(8): 651-667, 2001.
  • Kerr, S.M., Vincent, J.H., Ramachandran, G. “A new approach to sampling for particle size and chemical species ‘fingerprinting’ of workplace aerosols”, Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 45(7): 555-568, 2001.
  • Cross, D.P., Ramachandran, G., Wattenberg, E.V. “Mixtures of nickel and cobalt chlorides induce synergistic cytotoxic effects: Implications for inhalation exposure modeling”, Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 45(5): 409-418, 2001.
  • Sreenath, A., Ramachandran, G., and Vincent, J.H. “Experimental study of sampling losses in thin-walled probes at varying angles to the wind”, Aerosol Science and Technology, 35:767-778, 2001.
  • Sexton, K., Greaves, I.A., Church, T.R., Adgate, J.L., Ramachandran, G., Tweedie, R.L., Fredrickson, A.L., Geisser, M., Sikorski, M., Fischer, G., Jones, D., Ellringer, P. “A school-based strategy to assess children’s environmental exposures and related health effects in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods”, Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 10:682-694, 2000.
  • Kandlikar, M. and Ramachandran, G., “The causes and consequences of particulate air pollution in urban India: A synthesis of the science”, Annual Review of Energy and Environment, Vol. 25: 629-684, 2000.
  • Ramachandran, G., Adgate, J.L., Pratt, G.C., Hill, N., Bock, D., and Sexton, K. “Comparison of short-term variations (15-minute averages) in outdoor and indoor PM2.5 concentrations”, Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 50:1157-1166, 2000.
  • Vincent, J.H., Ramachandran, G., Thomassen, Y., and Keeler, G. “Application of recent advances in aerosol sampling science towards the development of improved sampling devices: The way ahead”, Journal of Environmental Monitoring (Royal Society of Chemistry), 1:285-292, 1999.
  • Sreenath, A., Vincent, J.H., and Ramachandran, G. “New experimental studies of the basic performance characteristics of aerosol samplers”, Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 14:624-631, 1999 .
  • Sreenath, A., Ramachandran, G. and Vincent, J.H. “An experimental approach to correcting counting errors in the Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS Model 3310)”, Particle and Particle Systems Characterization, 16 (6), 257-265, 1999.
  • Ramachandran, G., and Vincent, J.H. “A Bayesian approach to retrospective exposure assessment”, Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 14:547-557, 1999 .
  • Sreenath, A., Ramachandran, G., Vincent, J.H., Experimental measurements and development of improved physical models for aerosol sampler aspiration efficiency. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 14, 624-631, 1999.
  • Kandlikar, M., and Ramachandran, G., “Inverse methods for analyzing classifier measurements: A critical analysis”, Journal of Aerosol Science, 30:413-437, 1998.
  • Ramachandran, G., Sreenath, A. and Vincent, J.H., “Towards a new method for experimental determination of aerosol sampler aspiration efficiency using scaling relationships”, Journal of Aerosol Science, 29:875-891, 1998.
  • Spear, T.M., Werner, M.A., Bootland, J., Murray, E., Ramachandran, G., and Vincent, J.H., “Particle size-selective indices of aerosol exposures of primary lead smelter workers”, Annals of Occupational Hygiene , 42(2):73-80 (1998).
  • Ramachandran, G. and Vincent, J.H., “Evaluation of two Inversion Techniques for Retrieving Health-Related Aerosol Fractions from Personal Cascade Impactor Measurements”, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 58:15-22(1997).
  • Vincent, J.H., Ramachandran, G., Pui, D.Y.H., Gomes, M.S.P., Sato, S. and Sreenath, A. “Experimental studies of particle transport in air flows near bluff bodies, with and without aspiration”, Proceedings of the 1997 ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting FEMSi97. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Paper 3634, Vancouver, June 1997. Published in CD-ROM.
  • Vincent, J.H., Brosseau, L.M., Ramachandran, G., Tsai, P.J., Werner, M.A., and Spear, T.M. “Current issues in exposure assessment for workplace aerosols, In: Inhaled Particles VII (ed. Ogden, T.L.), Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 41 (S1): 607-614. (1997).
  • Sreenath, A., Ramachandran, G., and Vincent, J.H., “Experimental studies of the aspiration efficiencies of blunt aerosol samplers at large angles to the wind”, Journal of Aerosol Science, 27 (Supplement), S339-340 (1996).
  • Ramachandran, G., Werner, M.A., and Vincent, J.H., “On the Assessment of Particle Size Distributions in Workers’ Aerosol Exposures”, The Analyst, 121:1225-1232 (1996).
  • Ramachandran, G., and Kandlikar, M., “Bayesian Analysis for Inversion of Aerosol Size Distribution Data”, Journal of Aerosol Science, 27(7):1099-1112 (1996).
  • Ramachandran, G., Johnson, E.W., and Vincent, J.H., “Inversion Techniques for Personal Cascade Impactor Data”, Journal of Aerosol Science, 27(7):1083-1097 (1996).
  • Sreenath, A., Ramachandran, G., and Vincent, J.H., “Experimental investigations into the nature of airflows near bluff bodies with aspiration”, Atmospheric Environment, 31(15): 2349-2359 (1996).
  • Ramachandran, G. and Reist, P.C. “Predictions of Factors Affecting Extinction Efficiencies of Internally Mixed Aerosols Using the Reist-Wilson-MARS Program”, Journal of Aerosol Science, 27(7):1113-1124 (1996).
  • Ramachandran, G. and Reist, P.C. “Characterization of Morphological Changes in Agglomerates Subject to Condensation and Evaporation Using Multiple Fractal Dimensions”, Aerosol Science and Technology, 23:431-442 (1995).
  • Todd, L.A., and Ramachandran, G., “Evaluation of an Infrared Open Path Spectrometer using an Exposure Chamber and a Calibration Cell”, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 56(2):151, (1995).
  • Ramachandran, G., Leith, D., and Todd, L.A. “Extraction of Spatial Aerosol Distributions from Multispectral Light Extinction Measurements using Computed Tomography”, Journal of the Optical Society of America, 11(1): 144-154 (1994).
  • Todd, L.A. and Ramachandran, G., “Evaluation of Algorithms for Tomographic Reconstruction of Chemicals in Indoor Air”, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 55(5):403-417, (1994).
  • Ramachandran, G., Raynor, P. and Leith, D. “Collection Efficiency and Pressure Drop and Pressure Drop for a Rotary-Flow Cyclone”, Filtration and Separation 31(6):631-636, September-October, (1994).
  • Todd, L.A. and Ramachandran, G., “Evaluation of Source-Detector Configurations for Tomographic Reconstruction of Chemicals in Indoor Air”, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 55(12):1133, (1994).
  • Ramachandran, G. and Leith, D., “Extraction of Aerosol Size Distributions from Multispectral Light Extinction Data”, Aerosol Science and Technology, 17:303-325. (1992).
  • Ramachandran, G., Leith, D., Dirgo, J., and Feldman, H. “Cyclone Optimization Based on a New Empirical Model for Pressure Drop”, Aerosol Science and Technology, 15:135-148. (1991).
  • Rodes, C., Smith, T., Crouse, R., and Ramachandran, G.. “Measurements of the Size Distribution of Aerosols Produced by Ultrasonic Humidification”, Aerosol Science and Technology, 3:220-229. (1990).